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The limitations of Heart Rate-Based Training for Amateur Athletes:

Heart rate-based training has gained popularity among athletes as a method to optimize performance and prevent overexertion. However, when it comes to amateur athletes, relying solely on heart rate-based training may not be the most effective approach. In this post, we will explore the reasons why amateur athletes - especially newer age-group triathletes face challenges with heart rate-based training and we will then discuss alternative strategies.

  1. Individual Variability:

  • Issue: Heart rate zones are calculated based on an individual’s maximum heart rate (MHR), which can vary significantly among people - we discussed on a previous post how the formula is outdated.

  • Challenge for Amateurs: Determining accurate MHR is challenging for amateurs without access to laboratory stress tests. Generic formulas (e.g., 220 - age) may not account for individual differences - as stated above .

  • Result: Amateurs might train at incorrect intensities, leading to suboptimal progress or overtraining.

  1. Dynamic Factors:

  • Issue: Heart rate fluctuates due to external factors (temperature, hydration, stress) and internal factors (fatigue, illness).

  • Challenge for Amateurs: Amateurs often lack awareness of these factors and may misinterpret their heart rate readings based on the above factors.

  • Result: Inconsistent training intensities and unreliable data undermine progress.

  1. Lack of Real-Time Feedback: (if no knowledgeable coach present)

  • Issue: Heart rate data is retrospective; athletes analyze it after the workout.

  • Challenge for Amateurs: Without real-time feedback during training, amateurs cannot adjust their effort promptly.

  • Result: Suboptimal training adaptations and missed opportunities for improvement.

  1. Inaccuracies in Wearable Devices:

  • Issue: Consumer heart rate monitors (wristbands, chest straps) have limitations.

  • Challenge for Amateurs: Inaccurate readings due to poor fit, movement artifacts, or sensor errors.

  • Result: Misguided training decisions based on faulty data.

  1. Neglecting Perceived Effort:

  • Issue: Heart rate alone does not capture perceived effort.

  • Challenge for Amateurs: Ignoring how they feel during workouts can lead to pushing too hard or not hard enough.

  • Result: Poor pacing and suboptimal training adaptations.

  1. Complexity of Zone Training:

  • Issue: Heart rate zones (e.g., aerobic, anaerobic) require understanding and consistent application.

  • Challenge for Amateurs: Grasping the nuances of different zones and adjusting training accordingly.

  • Result: Amateurs may default to a single zone, missing out on the benefits of varied intensities based on their own perception of fatigue or exertion.

Conclusion: While heart rate-based training has merits, amateur athletes should approach it cautiously. A holistic approach that combines heart rate data with rate of perceived effort (RPE) pace, and other training cues is more practical. Amateurs should seek guidance from experienced coaches and consider alternative methods, such as rate perceived exertion or pace-based training, to achieve their athletic goals effectively. Reach out to us if you have any questions and look for our training plans on the website pages .


1: Tocci, K., & Gibbons, B. (2024). Heart Rate Training Zones for Runners: Complete Guide. Marathon Handbook. Link 2: American Heart Association. (n.d.). What’s A Typical Average Heart Rate While Running? Marathon Handbook. Link 3: Runner’s World. (2023). A guide to heart rate training. Link 4: Healthline. (2023). Athlete Heart Rate: What’s Safe and What’s Too High? Link

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